A covenant is a promise to take an action (or refrain from taking an action) that must be true for the period of time described in the purchase agreement.
An indemnity is simply protection against loss. Indemnification protects a party from losses due to broken “promises” (i.e., breaches of representations and warranties or covenants), and requires that the breaching party make the other party whole for losses realized.
The working capital adjustment can have a direct impact on the price paid for the business. Given that price is arguably the most important variable in a transaction, and that the working capital adjustment can impact price, it follows that the working capital adjustment deserves special attention.
A stock purchase agreement is the primary transaction document for a stock acquisition. The purpose of the stock purchase agreement is to confirm the price paid for the securities sought, to control risk to the degree possible and to provide a roadmap for the hold period.